Background and aims
Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) provides preset goals to be achieved by intravenous fluid therapy and inotropic therapy with earliest detection of change in the hemodynamic profile. Improved outcome in cardiac surgery patients has been shown by perioperative volume optimization, while postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay can be decreased by improving oxygen delivery. Our aim of this study was to study the outcome of EGDT in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.
Materials and methods
This is a prospective single institute study involving a total of 478 patients. Patients were divided into group I, who received standard hospital care, and group II, who received EGDT. Postoperatively, patients were observed in ICU for 72 hours. Hemodynamics, laboratory data, fluid bolus, inotrope score, complication, ventilatory time, and mortality data were collected.
Postoperative ventilatory period (11.12 ± 10.11 vs 9.45 ± 8.87, p = 0.0719) and frequency of change in inotropes (1.900 ± 0.9 vs 1.19 ± 0.61, p = 0.0717) were lower in group II. Frequency of crystalloid boluses (1.33 ± 0.65 vs 1.75 ± 1.09, p = 0.0126), and quantity of packed cell volume (PCV) used (1.63 ± 1.03 vs 2.04 ± 1.42, p = 0.0364) were highly significant in group II. Use of colloids was higher in group II and was statistically significant (1.98 ± 1.99 vs 3.05 ± 2.17, p = 0.0012). The acute kidney injury (AKI) rate was (58 (23.10%) vs 30 (13.21%), p = 0.007) lower and statistically significant (p = 0.007) in group II.
Early goal-directed therapy reduces the postoperative ventilatory period, frequency of changes in inotropes, and incidence of AKI, and decreases ventilation hours, number of times inotropes changed, and AKI.