Heart disease is the leading cause of death in men and women in the United States. During the past several decades, research into the role of specific intracellular mediators, called exosomes, has advanced the understanding of molecular cardioprotection. Exosomes and the micro-RNAs within them may be potential targets for the development of genetically engineered or biosimilar medications for patients in heart failure or with ischemic cardiac disease. This review discusses anesthetic implications of exosome production and the future micro-RNA applications for cardioprotection.
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