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Impact on Renal Function and Hospital Outcomes of an Individualized Management of Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Congenital Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), high flows can allow an adequate perfusion to kidneys, but, on the other hand, they could cause emboli production, increased vascular pressure, and a more intense inflammatory response, which are in turn causes of renal damage. Along with demographic variables, other intra-operative management and post-operative events, this might lead to Acute kidney injury (AKI) in infants undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim of our study was to investigate if a CPB strategy with flow requirements based on monitoring of continuous metabolic and hemodynamic parameters could have an impact on outcomes, with a focus on renal damage. Thirty-four consecutive infants and young children undergoing surgery requiring CPB, comparable as for demographic and patho-physiological profile, were included. In Group A, 16 patients underwent, for a variable period of 20 min, CPB aiming for the minimal flow that could maintain values of MVO2 > 70% and frontal NIRS (both left and right) > 45%, and renal NIRS > 65%. In Group B, 18 patients underwent nominal flows CPB. Tapered CPB allowed for a mean reduction of flows of 34%. No difference in terms of blood-gas analysis, spectroscopy trend, laboratory analyses, and hospital outcome were recorded. In patients developing AKI (20%), renal damage was correlated with demographic characteristics and with renal NIRS during the first 6 h in the ICU. A safe individualized strategy for conduction of CPB, which allows significant flow reduction while maintaining normal hemodynamic and metabolic parameters, does not impact on renal function and hospital outcomes.


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